Citation Guides

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MLA 8 Citation Guide

Works Cited are listed at the end of a paper.

Books and Ebooks

  • Last name, First name. Title of Book. Publisher, year.

One Author

  • Picoult, Jodi. The Storyteller: A Novel. Emily Bestler, 2013.

2-3 Authors or Editors

  • Posamentier, Alfred S., Daniel Jaye, and Stephen Krulik. Exemplary Practices for Secondary Math Teachers. Assn. for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2007.

Article in a Reference Group

  • Kolb, Charles C. "Turkmen." Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities. Vol. 3, Routledge, 2005, pp. 1223-24.

Articles (from databases or newspaper/journal/magazine websites)

  • Last name, First name. "Article Title." Journal Title, volume, issue, year, pp. (page numbers). Database Name. Day month year accessed.

  • Last name, First name. "Article Title." Newspaper Title, day month year, pp. (pages). Database Name. Day month year accessed.

Online Magazine Articles

  • Duplet, Franc. "How to Duplicate the Success of a Business." Successful Jobs, Oct. 2003, pp. 55- 58. General Business File. Accessed 28 Dec. 2008.

Online Journal Articles

  • Liller, Karen D. "Let's Sell Health." Journal of School Health, vol. 75, no. 5, 2005, pp. 187-88. Academic Search Premier. Accessed 20 Aug. 2009.

Web Pages

Include as much of the following as possible: author or editor's name, title of web page, title of broader website, sponsoring organization, last updated day month year (1st date listed), format, and day month year visited (2nd date listed). Include the URL if the page might be difficult to relocate.

  • Culligan, John, editor. "Biofuels and University Economics." School of Natural Sciences, U of Western Oregon, Oct. 2008. 25 Mar. 2009. Accessed 20 Aug. 2015.

In-text Citations in the body of the paper!

Direct Quotes

A direct quote is a word for word copy of source material. The quote is enclosed in quotation marks. Include the author's last name and date of publication as well as page numbers if available.

  • Joseph Conrad writes of the company manager in Heart of Darkness, "He was obeyed, yet he inspired neither love nor fear, nor even respect" (87).

  • "The red tree vole is a crucial part of the spotted owl's diet" (Moone 15).

Block Quotes

  • At the conclusion of Lord of the Flies, Ralph and the other boys realize the horror of their actions: He gave himself up to them now for the first time on the island; great, shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to wrench his whole body. His voice rose under the black smoke before the burning wreckage of the island; and infected by that emotion, the other little boys began to shake and sob too. (186)


A paraphrase is a quotation rewritten in your own words. A summary is a condensed version of a longer passage from an outside source. Both require citations. Include the author's name and the page number.

  • Oregon salmon populations have dramatically declined in the past decade (Lenz 27).
  • Kafka describes the insecurities of his youth and his rocky relationship with his father (44-46).

Indirect Quote

When possible, cite information directly. If you must cite a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. Include the secondary source in parentheses with the abbreviation "qtd. in" (quoted in). Include the indirect source in your works cited list.

  • Jackson stated that... (qtd. in Johns 14).
    • In this example, "Johns" should appear in your works cited list.

Multiple Authors

2-3 Authors

  • Studies have shown that more teachers are changing careers. (Posamentier, Jaye, and Krulik 55).

3+ Authors

  • Stutts el al. argue for the impact of language development on the brain (339).

Other citation formats: Instruction available on request